Ketoconazole (Nizral Shampoo) 2% Shampoo is an antifungal agent used in the treatment and prevention of extreme fungal infections in patients who have failed to respond to other therapies or who are intolerant to them. It is also used to treat an adrenal gland condition known as Cushing’s syndrome, where excess amounts of cortisol are released by the body. Each shampoo contains 2% of Ketoconazole as the active ingredient.
Strength = 2%
How to use
For patients using the 2% shampoo:
- Wet your hair and scalp well with water.
- Apply the shampoo to the skin of the affected area and a wide margin surrounding this area.
- Work up a good lather and leave it in place for 5 minutes.
- Rinse your hair and scalp well with warm water, and dry your hair.
To help you remember to use ketoconazole, use it at around the same time every day. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand.
Use ketoconazole exactly as directed. Do not use more or less of it or use it more often than prescribed by your doctor.
Dosage of Ketoconazole (Nizral Shampoo) 2% Shampoo
Adult: Pityriasis Versicolor: As 2% shampoo: Treatment: Apply on the wet scalp once daily for five days. Prophylaxis: Apply on the wet scalp once daily for Max 3 days before exposure to sunlight.
Seborrhoeic dermatitis: As 2% shampoo: Treatment: Apply on the wet scalp twice weekly for 2-4 weeks. Prophylaxis: Apply on the wet scalp once every 1-2 weeks. Leave for 3-5 minutes then rinse thoroughly. Continue treatment until a few days after symptoms have resolved.
Dandruff: As 2% shampoo: Treatment: Apply on the wet scalp twice weekly for 2-4 weeks. Prophylaxis: Apply on the wet scalp once every 1-2 weeks. Leave for 3-5 minutes then rinse thoroughly. Continue treatment until a few days after symptoms have resolved.
Missed Dose of Ketoconazole (Nizral Shampoo) 2% Shampoo
Just apply the missed dose and then continue with the regular dosing schedule.
Do not double the dose under any circumstances.
Overdose of Ketoconazole (Nizral Shampoo) 2% Shampoo
If you think you may have used Ketoconazole more than the usual dose, please seek medical help immediately.
People with the following medical conditions should not take Ketoconazole:
- Acute or Chronic hepatic impairment
- Pregnancy (with Cushing syndrome)
- Lactation (oral)
Side Effects of Ketoconazole (Nizral Shampoo) 2% Shampoo
Ketoconazole may have the following side effects:
- Bleeding from sore in the mouth
- Reddening of the skin
- Cracked, dry, or scaly skin
- Discoloration of the fingernails or toenails
- Eye dryness, irritation, or swelling
- Red rash with watery, yellow-colored, or pus-filled blisters with or without thick yellow to honey-colored crusts
- Sore in the mouth or on the gums
- Swelling of the face
Always notify your doctor and pharmacist if you are taking any other medicines, including herbal tonics such as traditional Chinese medicine, supplements, and medicines that you buy without a prescription.
This list does not include all medicines that may interact with Ketoconazole.
How Does It Work?
Ketoconazole is a highly selective fungal cytochrome P-450-dependent enzyme inhibitor that decreases ergosterol biosynthesis and inhibits fungal cell membrane formation. Ergosterol is a significant component of the membrane of the fungal cell. Inhibition of its synthesis leads to higher cellular permeability, thereby leading to cellular material leakage.
Ketoconazole is used to treat the following conditions:
- Cushing’s syndrome
- Systemic fungal infection
- Cutaneous candidiasis; Tinea corporis; Tinea cruris; Tinea manuum; Tinea pedis
- Pityriasis Versicolor
- Seborrhoeic dermatitis
Special Precautions and Connected Warnings
Take special precautions if you have the following conditions:
- Patients with achlorhydria
- prostate cancer
- Central nervous system infection
- Adrenal insufficiency
- Major surgery
- Intensive care
- Lactation (topical)
- Avoid alcohol
- Cream, shampoo: Store below 25°C and protected from light.
- Store in a cool, dry place away from the reach of children.
- Do not use Ketoconazole that is expired or out of date.